Air Quality in Hong Kong

Air quality is a major concern in Hong Kong, and the Government is undertaking a number of initiatives to improve it. The following provides an overview of the problems and the solutions that are being put forward.

Air Pollution

Hong Kong's air pollution is mainly contributed by motor vehicles, marine vessels and power plants. The two greatest challenges are local street-level pollution and regional smog. Diesel vehicles, particularly trucks, buses and light buses, are the main source of street-level pollution. Smog is caused by a combination of pollutants mainly from motor vehicles, industry and power plants in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta. The Environment Bureau released “A Clean Air Plan for Hong Kong” in March 2013 which sets out in detail the various measures to tackle air pollution from power plants, land and sea transport, and non-road mobile machinery and to strengthen collaboration with Guangdong to deal with regional pollution. A progress report was published in June 2017 which gave an account on its implementation and achievements.

The Government has been working hard to reduce emissions. As of 2019, a comprehensive programme to reduce street-level pollution had lowered the roadside levels of nitrogen dioxide, respirable suspended particulates, fine suspended particulates and sulphur dioxide by 19%, 58%, 54% and 81% respectively compared with 1999. Hong Kong’s prevailing Air Quality Objectives (AQOs), which are benchmarked against a combination of interim and ultimate targets under the World Health Organization's Air Quality Guidelines, took effect from 1 January 2014. To attain the AQOs, the Government has put forward a wide range of air quality improvement measures. The Environment Bureau/ Environment Protection Department completed the review of the AQOs at the end of 2018. Subject to the outcome of the public consultation and if the prevailing AQOs are to be tightened, the Environment Bureau will initiate the legislative procedures. In addition, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and Guangdong Provincial Governments endorsed in November 2012 a set of regional emission reduction targets/ranges for 2015 and 2020 respectively with a view to improving regional air quality.

More on “A Clean Air Plan for Hong Kong” More on “Clean Air Plan for Hong Kong (2013 - 2017 Progress Report)”More on “Review of Air Quality Objectives”

Air Quality Health Index

The Environmental Protection Department releases hourly Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) to inform the public of the short-term health risk of air pollution in Hong Kong and helps the public take precautionary measures to protect their health.  The AQHIs are reported on a scale of 1 to 10 and 10+ and are grouped into five AQHI health risk categories with health advice provided.  This is particularly useful for people who are sensitive to air pollution like children, the elderly and those with heart or respiratory illnesses who need to take precautions when the health risk levels are high.  The health risk categories forecast also advises the public before the onset of high health risk categories due to pollution episodes.

More on the AQHI

Pearl River Delta Air Quality

Cooperation between the governments of Hong Kong and Guangdong is working to ensure that regional pollution levels are brought under control. At the forefront of such efforts is the Regional Air Quality Management Plan, which is coordinating individual initiatives in different cities to ensure that everyone in the Delta benefits. The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Pearl River Delta Regional Air Monitoring Network is monitoring the results, which can provide you with information about the level of air pollution in the region.

More on Pearl River Delta air quality

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)

The Government's concern about air quality in Hong Kong also extends indoors. It is important to achieve and maintain a better IAQ as we spend majority of our time indoors, either at homes, offices or on public transportation facilities. Good IAQ safeguards our health and would also help enhance Hong Kong's competitiveness over other cities.

More on IAQ

What You Can Do

There are a number of practical and easy ways that you can help to improve air quality both indoors and outdoors. For example, you can choose public instead of private transport and switch off domestic appliances and electric lights when they are not in use. Industry, developers and others can also play their parts by observing air pollution control laws and exercising good practices in their operations. What we do now will determine how well we live tomorrow.

More information on help clean the air
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Last revision date: April 2021