Hong Kong – the Facts

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Hong Kong is a vibrant city, and a major gateway to Mainland China. This page will give you the facts about Hong Kong - from the form of government to the languages used.


On 1 July 1997, Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and the Basic Law came into effect. The Basic Law is the constitutional document of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). It enshrines within a legal document the important concepts of "one country, two systems", "Hong Kong people administering Hong Kong" and a high degree of autonomy. According to the Basic Law, the HKSAR enjoys executive, legislative and independent judicial power, including that of final adjudication, and its political system and way of life remains unchanged for 50 years.

Hong Kong's Government structureBasic Law


Hong Kong's economy is characterised by free trade, low taxation and minimum government intervention. It is the world's 10th largest trading economy, with the mainland of China as its most significant trading partner. Hong Kong is also a major service economy, with particularly strong links to mainland China and the rest of the Asia-Pacific region.

  • Currency: Hong Kong dollar
  • GDP: HK$2,981.6 billion (2023)
  • GDP per capita: HK$395,642 (2023)
  • Real GDP growth: 3.3% (2023)
  • Labour force: 3.822 million (2023)
More on Hong Kong's economy

Public Holidays

Hong Kong provides two types of public holidays: statutory and general holidays. Statutory holidays are mandated under the Employment Ordinance and must be provided to all employees. General holiday under General Holidays Ordinance means a day which banks, educational establishments, public offices and Government departments shall keep as a holiday.

  • Statutory holidays: 14 days in 2024 (will be increased to 17 days progressively)
  • General holidays: 17 days and Sundays
More information on statutory holidaysList of general holidays


At the south-eastern tip of China, Hong Kong covers Hong Kong Island, Lantau Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories, including 261 outlying islands. Between Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Peninsula lies Victoria Harbour, one of the world's most renowned deep-water harbours.

  • Total land area: 1,114.57 square kilometres
  • Country parks and special areas: about 40%
Hong Kong maps


Hong Kong has a subtropical climate. January and February are cloudier with cold spells, while March and April are milder and humid with fog. From May to August, it is hot and humid with occasional heavy rain and thunderstorms. Tropical cyclones usually occur between June and October, bringing high winds, heavy rain and sometimes storm surges. November and December are generally fine and dry with pleasantly cool weather, and may on occasion be relatively cold at night and in the early morning.

  • Average annual rainfall: 2,431.2 mm
  • Wettest months: June and August
  • Driest months: January and December
More on Hong Kong's climate


Hong Kong's population was approximately 7.54 million in mid-2023. People of Chinese descent comprise the vast majority of the population.

  • Population density: 6,910 people per square kilometre (as at mid-2023)
  • Crude birth rate: 4.4 per 1,0001 (2023)
  • Percentage of population of Chinese ethnicity: 91.6%2
  • Other significant national groups*:
    • Philippines (206,057 total)3
    • Indonesia (160,344 total)3
    • India (39,589 total)3.

*Please note that the figures on foreign residents are derived from a physical count of arrival and departure records maintained by the Immigration Department. Such figures are a breakdown of the number of persons by their nationalities physically present in Hong Kong on a particular date (usually the last day of a month). They do not represent the total number of foreign residents who have residential status here. The figures also vary from time to time because some foreign residents travel to places outside Hong Kong frequently on business trips or on vacation.

More on Hong Kong's population

1 Provisional figure
2 Results from 2021 Population Census
3 Figures at mid-2023


Chinese and English are the official languages of Hong Kong. English is widely used in the Government and by the legal, professional and business sectors. Trilingual professionals who speak English, Cantonese and Putonghua play a vital role in the numerous enterprises trading in Hong Kong or doing business with mainland China and Taiwan.

Proportion of population aged 5 and over by usual spoken language1:

  • Cantonese: 88.2%
  • Putonghua: 2.3%
  • Other Chinese dialect: 2.8%
  • English: 4.6%
  • Other language: 2.1%

1 Results from 2021 Population Census

More on Hong Kong's official languages
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Last revision date: June 2024
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